Trade Tips

What We Learned

The OSA International, Inc., team has a vast amount of knowledge they’ve gained by working with a wide variety of technology over the years, and more importantly the latest technology available today for live events and the entertainment industry. We’ve mastered the in’s and out’s, learned the tips and tricks to make the technology work for your event.

So, where do I put this thing?

So you’ve got yourself one of those FFT measurement systems and a shiny new microphone and you want to know where to put the mic! This is one of the most asked questions about measurement systems I hear and the stock answer “it depends” isn’t very helpful. Let’s see if we can put people on […]

End-fire vs. Cardioid vs. Arc delay

A look at the pros and cons of each system Now that we have a firm grasp of each of these building blocks for directional arrays, let’s look at the issues they have. Cardioid If we imagine a cardioid setup configuration as in Fig. 1, with the rear source reverse polarity and delay equal to […]

Broadside Arc-Delay Processing

Part 3 of “building-blocks” is the broadside Arc-Delay array Here in part three we’re going to look at another fundamental building-block, the broadside array and the processing that can be applied to it. First we should look at the reasons for deploying this kind of array by looking at the traditional L-R split-array, as shown […]

End-Fire Arrays

How to build end-fire arrays, a variation on gradient arrays In our last article we covered the basics of gradient arrays, now we’ll build on that knowledge to look at end-fire arrays. Here, in Fig 1, we see two sources separated from their acoustic centers by a distance D and a delay has been applied […]

Subwoofer Directivity

Polar pattern control of multiple sources [3] Using directional techniques on Subwoofers can have beneficial advantages due to room coupling, etc. But a full understanding of how they work and what some of the shortcomings are of each system is needed. There’s no “magic-bullet,” but when used correctly these techniques can go a long way […]


In the last article we talked about setting the timing for delay or front fill systems. In this article we’ll talk about imaging. I’m sure we’ve all heard of the “precedence effect” or “Hass effect,” perhaps one of the most misunderstood principles in audio. It goes something like this: “I timed the arrival time between […]

Setting Audio System Delays

Many times we use multiple systems to meet our coverage needs, but getting these systems to “play well together” can sometimes be problematical. A typical strategy when aligning systems is to work from loudest to quietist, for now let’s assume that the speaker manufacturer has done his homework at the component level, so it’s these […]